non conventional energy resources Presentation Transcript
1.NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES
2.INTRODUCTION Energy is basically the capacity of a body to do work. The different forms of energy are: Mechanical energy, Thermal (or) Heat energy, Chemical energy, Electrical energy Nuclear energy, Electromagnetic energy, Gravitational energy. The S.I unit of energy is Joule. There are 2 types of energy sources: conventional energy sources and non conventional energy sources.
3.Conventional energy sources include fossil fuel energy and nuclear energy. It is a non renewable source of energy. Non conventional energy sources include wind energy, tidal energy, solar energy, bio energy & fuel cell energy. It is renewable source of energy.
4.SOLAR ENERGY The energy that is produced from sun is known as solar energy. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that takes place deep in the sun, where hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. When such a reaction takes place then tremendous amount of energy is produced which is escaped into the space. About 15% of sun’s energy is absorbed by earth’s atmosphere, some part is absorbed by earth’s surface and rest is reflected back to space.
5.Use of solar energy for domestic purposes:-
6.Solar energy as a source of power generation:-
7.Electricity generation using organic photo voltaic cells:-
8.Solar energy as a source for heat energy: Capacity: 125L, 250L, 375L, 500L, 750L, 1000LCollector Type: Black-chrome Coated Max. Temperature of hot water: 60°CLife of system: 15 – 20 years
9.Advantages: Pollution free. Available in plenty. Disadvantages: High initial cost. It requires a large area for the system to be efficient in providing a source of electricity.
10.Wind Energy Winds are caused because of two factors. The absorption of solar energy on the earth’s surface and in the atmosphere. The rotation of the earth about its axis and its motion around the sun. Because of these factors, alternate heating and cooling cycles occur, differences in pressure are obtained, and the air is caused to move.
11.Wind energy has potential to be used as a source of power. This can be judged from the fact that energy available in the wind over the earth’s surface is estimated to be 1.6x107 K.W And the energy available is free and clean.
12.Electricity generation from wind energy:
13.Advantages: free Inexhaustible No pollution Disadvantages (1)Wind power is not consistent. (2)High cost
14.BIO GAS ENERGY Bio gas is generated through a process of anaerobic degradation of Bio Mass. Bio Mass is organic matter produced by plants, both terrestrial (those grown on land) and aquatic (those grown in water) and their derivatives. It includes forest crops and residues, crops grown especially for their energy content on “energy farms” and animal manure. Unlike coal, oil and natural gas, which takes Millions of years to form, bio mass can be considered as a renewable energy source
15.It can also be considered a form of solar energy as the latter is used indirectly to grow these plants by photosynthesis. Hence, solar energy –>Photosynthesis –> Bio Mass->energy generation
16.Use of bio gas energy for domestic purposes:-
17.Advantages of bio energy: It burns without any smoke so it is eco friendly. It is a renewable source of energy. Disadvantages of bio energy: Low production Not economical for large scale use.
18.TIDAL ENERGY Tide is periodic rise and fall of the water level of the sea. This rise and fall of water level occurs due to the attraction of sea water by the moon. When the water is above the mean sea level, it is called flood tide and when the level is below the mean level, it is called ebb tide. These tides can be used to produce electrical power which is known as tidal power.
19.Tidal energy as a source of electricity generation:-
20.Advantages: It is pollution free. Renewable source of energy. It can meet high demand of electricity. Disadvantages: The supply of power is not continuous as it depends upon the timing of tides. Therefore some arrangements (double basin or double basin with pump storage) must be made to supply the continuous power. High installation cost.
21.FUEL CELL ENERGY Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combines hydrocarbon fuel with oxygen to produce electricity and heat. The fuel cell consist of cathode, anode and an electrolyte. Nickel is used as a catalyst in fuel cells. The cathode side receives oxygen from the surrounding air and hydrogen is formed by the reforming process.
22.Electricity generation from fuel Cell energy:
23.Advantages: Better than other conventional sources of energy as it is always available. Negligible amounts of pollutants, such as NOx and SOx are produced. Disadvantages: Takes larger space. The hydrogen evaporates as the insulation is not that perfect.
24.CONCLUSION At last I conclude that this study of NON CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY is valuable as it will meet the energy needs in future, as conventional sources of energy is going to exhaust in future and these sources of energy are also harming the environment directly or indirectly.
25.REFERENCES Bennett, G.L. Space Applications, CRC Handbook of Thermoelectric, ed. M.M. Rowe, p 515-537, 1995. Wu, C. A Silent Cool, Science News Online, September, 1997. Ellis, S., Ryan, D. Application of Thermoelectricity to Waste Heat Recovery, Final Year Project, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Caulfield Campus, Monash University, 1998. Carbo, 1.2003. Municipal Solid Waste Management Equipment in Colombia Report, Document 5, v01.180, no.4082, pp 155-162.