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Work Study  Presentation Transcript

2. Work Study
“Work study is a general term for those techniques, particularly method study and work measurement, which are used in the examination of human work in all its context and which lead systematically to the investigation of all the factors which affect the efficiency and economy of the situation being reviewed in order to effect improvement.”
3. Behavioural Impact
Worker is observed
Worker perceives this as a threat
Affects performance
Take worker into confidence and brief about study
4. Method Study
‘The systematic analysis and design of work methods and systems through the application of innovatory techniques to achieve improved utilisation of resources.’ - ISI
Select (the work to be studied);
Record (all relevant information about that work);
Examine (the recorded information);
Develop (an improved way of doing things);
Install (the new method as standard practice);
Maintain (the new standard proactive).     
5. Record – Process Chart
6. Record
Flow Process Chart
Outline Process Chart
Two Handed Chart
Multiple Activity Chart
SIMO Charts
Travel Charts
Flow Diagram
String Diagram
7. Critical Examination
What is being done?
Why is it being done?
What else can be done?
What should be done?
Where is it being done?
Why is it being done there?
Where else can it be done?
Where should it be done?
When is it being done?
Why is it being done then?
When else can it be done?
When should it be done?
8.Critical Examination
Who is doing it?
Why is it he/she doing it?
Who else can do it?
Who should be doing it?
How is it being done?
Why is it being done that way?
How else can it be done?
How should it be done?
9. Example
The activity selected for study was the assembly of a bolt, one washer and a nut. The worker had a tray filled with bolts with a hexagonal head to his left on a work table. On the right side were two trays, one containing steel washers and the other containing hexagonal nuts. The worker lifted a bolt with his left hand. He then picked up a washer from the tray on his right with his right hand and placed it on the bolt. He then picked up a nut from the tray with his right hand and placing it on the bolt, gave it a turn to screw it on the bolt. The left hand then released the bolt into the tray in the centre which contained assembled bolts.
10. Example
12. Work Measurement
Work measurement determines the work content in a task in terms of time
The time taken to complete any job is the time which a qualified worker – that is one with the requisite mental attributes and physical skills – would take, if working without over-exertion throughout a normal period while applying himself/herself to the job.
13. Methods
Direct methods - actual observations
Time study
Activity sampling
Indirect methods - timings from available data.
Synthetic timings
Predetermined motion time systems (PMTS)
Analytical estimating.
Time study is the most commonly used method.
14. Time Study
Observed Timings
15. Time Study - Example
16. Time Allowances
Relaxation and personal needs
Contingency Allowance
Company Allowance
Standard Time
   Standard time = Basic time(1 + Allowance)
For previous example
  Standard Time                         minutes
  Standard output during an 8 hour working day will be                 units.
17. Steps in Time Study
Establish the best method for doing the job and ensure that it is being used.
Break the task into elements.
Time and rate the elements.
Calculate the mean observed time of each element.
Calculate the basic time for each element by multiplying the mean observed time with the rating factor.
Calculate the total basic time by summing up the basic time for each element.
Calculate the standard time by adding the company allowance to the basic time.
18. Activity Sampling
Define the job activities.
Preliminary Study. Carry out a preliminary study or pilot study with 100-200 random observations. This will confirm that the activities have been correctly identified and will also help refine the proforma for recording.
Compute the number of observations required. Based on the results of the preliminary study, compute the number of observations required.
Carry out full study. Percentage occurrence of activities is then calculated.  
Periodically recalculate the number of observations required. The number of observations is dependent on the value of p, which is the percentage occurrence of the activity. Since this may change with the increase in the number of observations from what was observed during the preliminary study it is necessary to check and revise the number of observations necessary for the complete study.
19. Predetermined Motion Time Systems
Based on the analysis of work into basic human movements, classified according to the nature of each movement and the conditions under which it is made.
Tables of data provide a time, at a defined rate of working, for each classification of each movement.
By combining these movements and timings, the timing for any task can be computed.  
20. MTM-1
MTM-1 classifies basic human movements like reach, grasp, move, apply pressure, position, release, and disengage and so on.
The timings for these movements have been arrived by a frame by frame analysis of motion film.
Eliminates the need for worker rating.
Time is measured and expressed in time measurement unit (TMU) which is equal to 0.00001 hour or 0.036 seconds.
A degree of difficulty is attached to the motion.
21. MTM-X
23. Other Methods
Synthetic Timing
Analytical Estimating

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